The purpose of regulation of liquidity consists in maintenance of effective functioning of an interbank money-market and prevention of failures of a payment system. Liquidity regulation represents original continuation of conversion operations of currency boards. Updating of volume of the liquid assets which are at the command of bank sector, the monetary authorities can conduct at the expense of money market interventions. If the money-market is more developed in comparison with currency operations on liquidity regulation are transferred on it. However preservation of a principle 100 %-s’ maintenance of monetary issue is obligatory.
What instruments for a manipulation bank liquidity currency boards resort to?
In Argentina and Lithuania the monetary authorities grant daily credits, and Hong Kong – intraday loans. In all these cases banks of commerce as the lien should grant board some maintenance. Usually the maintenance role is executed by securities with nominal value in anchor currency. That banks did not test deficiency of such papers, quite often currency boards specially manufacture for them currency promissory notes.
For liquidity regulation reserve requirements also are actively used. In Estonia, along with refunding operations, reserve requirements play a dominant role in a monetary policy. Since July, 1st, 2001 the Estonian banks can independently place half of reserve requirements in highly liquid foreign bonds. Often reserve requirements are replaced with requests to liquidity of a bank of commerce. For example, currency boards can enter norm on which cash a component of reserve requirements should constitute 20 % from volume of reserves.
Instruments of regulation of liquidity to which currency boards address, it is a lot of. The choice of concrete instruments in the end depends on structural characteristics of a national financial system. The preference is given usually to efficiency of an interbank money-market, features of a payment system and volatility to a liquid item of bank sector.
The creditor of an ultimate authority
Function of the creditor of an ultimate authority is a corner stone of debate about currency board. Modern boards can execute function of the creditor. However it was not always like this. At the time of the first currency boards the banking system was weak, and its crises frequently were not reflected in any way in a real sector of economic activity. Absence of any influence of banks on economy explained low interest of the monetary authorities to maintenance of bank stability. In a modern financial system the situation is absolutely different.
Thanks to the monetary animator banks are main “founders” of money. Their bankruptcy inevitably leads to avalanche growth of the offer of legal tenders. To avoid a monetary system collapse, the currency board is forced to support in time a banking system afloat, ensuring to its stabilization of credits.
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